A puffer is any pattern which moves like a spaceship but leaves a trail of debris behind it, usually a collection of oscillators. A puffer that leaves behind spaceships is called a rake. For general information about puffers in cellular automata, see Puffer on LifeWiki.

Like Life, Live Free or Die is home to a variety of puffers. Because Live Free or Die is explosive, all naturally occurring puffers travel at c. Since any static object will inevitably be consumed by chaos, the only natural oscillators are those produced by natural puffers. Nearly all puffers output some combination of dots and checkers, and all known rakes output moons or free ships. The ferry puffer produces anchors along with a pattern of dots or checkers.

Many small p4 c puffers occur very commonly naturally, including the double dot puffer, dot puffer, and robot puffer. Rare natural puffers include those at p6 (the revolver puffer), p7 (the rake and bake puffer), and p9 (the arrow puffer and long arrow puffer), a large group of p4 puffers such as the shrapnel puffer, swamp puffer, twin puffer, and ugly puffer, and nearly as many p8 puffers, such as the eclipse puffer, scale puffer, scorpion puffer, and tick puffer. Other c puffers have also been discovered at p3 (the bent tricycle puffer, tricycle puffer, wide tricycle puffer, and tricycle rake) and p5 (the nickel puffer and nickel rake).

In addition, puffers can be built by combining spaceships and puffers into flotillas in various ways. Some, like anchor biter puffers and anchor nibbler puffers, can have any period 8 × 2n, and freedom fighter flotillas can have any period 6 × 2n. Flotillas that use anchor track technology can produce a much larger range of outputs than single puffers, including monsters, radar, anchor tracks, and anchor stacks. Anchor track flotillas are also the only known sideways and backward free ship rakes, and the only known sideways moon rakes.

The only known puffers that travel slower than c are backward moon rakes such as the p5 c/5 quintessential rake and the p4 c/2 buffalo rake, hippo rake, and horned rake.